Sunday, 11 December 2011

TEACHING AND LEARNING CONSTRUCTIVE LISTENING SKILLS

TEACHING AND LEARNING CONSTRUCTIVE LISTENING SKILLS: A STUDY AMONG EFL LEARNERS
(Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Kemahiran Pendengaran Berkonstruktif: Kajian Dalam Kalangan Pelajar-Pelajar EFL)
Jayanthi a/p Muniandy
ABSTRACT
This article is a report of an action research project conducted in a listening course for EFL students in one of the colleges in Penang, Malaysia. It aims to identify the effectiveness of constructive learning theory in teaching and learning listening skills as the existing teaching practice in the listening course is not rewarding. Four main purposes of listening; comprehensive, critical, appreciative and therapeutic listening were investigated in relation to constructive theory. Young Learners’ Language Strategy Use Survey (YLLS) was conducted to determine the students’ preferred strategies in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Besides, pre-test and post test were employed to identify the efficiency of constructive approachs in teaching and learning listening in EFL classroom. Throughout the entire course, students were observed intently on their involvement in classroom activities. The results from the YLLS questionnaire and classroom observation reveal that listening and speaking become their preferred learning strategy. The findings from pre-test and post-test show EFL learners have improved their listening skills by using constructive approach. In conclusion, constructive listening skills that include prior knowledge, social interaction, motivation and construction of meaning that relate to real world truly help the students to progress in the listening skills. Thus, the college system plays an important role to implement a new listening skills syllabus that contains constructive learning theory to enhance students’ listening skills in English language.
Keywords: Action research, Teaching, Learning, Constructive Listening, EFL learners
ABSTRAK
Makalah ini membincangkan kursus pendengaran dalam kalangan pelajar yang menguasai bahasa Inggeris sebagai bahasa asing di salah satu kolej di Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Objektifnya ialah untuk mengetahui keberkesanan penggunaan teori konstruktif dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran pendengaran sebab sukatan pelajaran kolej kurang berkesan. Kemahiran pendengaran merangkumi pemahaman, kritikal, penghargaan dan emosi dikaji dengan teori konstruktif. Kajian Pengunaan Strategi Bahasa dalam Kalangan Pelajar Remaja (YLLS) diadakan untuk mengetahui strategi yang digemari oleh pelajar dalam penguasaan bahasa Inggeris. Selain itu, ujian pra dan pasca dijalankan untuk mengetahui keberkesanan teori konstruktif dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran kemahiran pendengaran. Sepanjang kursus tersebut, pelajar diperhatikan secara intensif terhadap penglibatan mereka dalam aktiviti yang dijalankan. Keputusan daripada kajian YLLS dan pemerhatian dalam kelas membuktikan bahawa strategi pendengaran dan lisan adalah strategi yang paling digemari. Data dari pra dan pasca ujian menunjukkan pelajar berupaya memperbaiki kemahiran pendengaran dengan mengunakan teori konstruktif. Kesimpulannya, teori konstruktif meliputi pengetahuan lama, perhubungan sosial, motivasi dan pemahaman definisi membantu pelajar dalam pembelajaran kemahiran pendengaran. Oleh itu, sistem kolej perlu mengimplimentasikan sukatan pelajaran baru yang mengandungi teori pembelajaran konstruktif untuk menambahbaik pembelajaran kemahiran pendengaran dalam bahasa Inggeris.
Katakunci: Kajian Tindakan, Pengajaran, Pembelajaran, Pendengaran Konstruktif, Pelajar –pelajar EFL
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INTRODUCTION
Listening is one of the basic language skill courses offered to the foreign students. These students are mainly from Middle East countries, Mongolia, China, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. The students are placed according to the scores that they obtained from English Placement Test. There are four levels or classes of English Language Course; beginner, lower-intermediate, intermediate and upper-intermediate.
I taught the listening course many times at this college. Either by tradition or my own teaching style, I always do the best to get students’ attention in the classroom. I would also ensure that they could fully understand a listening piece before moving on to the next one. However, many of my students were not motivated in class as students frequently absent from class, come late to class or doze off while teaching. So I decided to talk to the students and conducted Young Learners’ Language Strategy Use Survey (YLLS) to determine students’ interests and capabilities in order to form appropriate lesson plan for them. I found that students have high interest in listening and speaking from the YLLS questionnaire. However, they felt bored and reluctant to participate in class as most of the exercises provided in the textbook are quite simple and uninteresting. They also felt they had not learned much in the class. Therefore, I planned to employ constructive listening skills in my class as it involves socio-interaction and thinking skills.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In order to boost students’ attention in the classroom, I used constructive learning theory in teaching listening skills. Therefore I raised two research questions for this study:
i. How are the purposes of listening and constructive approach related to one another?
ii. How efficiently does the constructive learning theory help in teaching and learning listening among EFL learners?
Listening is a communication channel that most frequently used but the surveys show that listening skills are the least developed (Galvin, Prescott & Huseman, 1992). Conaway (1982) also states that listening has been regarded as the most widely used language skill in the classroom and it plays an important role in one's academic success than reading skill or academic aptitude.
Listening course for English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners is a difficult task but it can be easier by activating prior knowledge, assisting students to identify the purposes for listening and using well-structured speaking tasks (Brown, 2006). There are various types of purposes of listening such as discriminative, comprehensive, evaluative, appreciative, emphatic, relationship, reflective, interpersonal and many others (Thompson, Leintz, Nevers & Witkowski, 2004; Weisglass, 1990; Rost, 2002).
However, the focus of this study will be only on four main objectives of listening; comprehensive, critical, appreciative and therapeutic listening. The main reason is because teaching and learning listening among EFL learners is more to listening for understanding, gathering main ideas and supporting details, constructing meaning, integrating with people (either support or argue) based on a topic of the listening and also listening for enjoyment (Kline, 1996).
Flowerdew (1994), who agrees to Brown (2006), Weisglass (1990) and Rost (2002) suggests that to be a successful academic listener, a student needs relevant background of
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knowledge, the ability to distinguish between important and unimportant message, and have appropriate skills like note taking. These recommended criteria are related to the constructive learning theory. This is because constructive approach allows students to construct meaning based on their prior knowledge and integrate with people. This approach is merely on students' active participation in problem-solving and critical thinking regarding a learning activity, which they find pertinent and applicable to the real world context. According to this learning theory, the learners ‘construct’ meaning based on their prior knowledge and experience to apply them in new situations and integrate the new knowledge gained with pre-existing constructs (OTEC, 2007).
THE STUDY
I carried out some changes to the way of managing my listening class. I taught the listening course to intermediate and upper-intermediate students. There were 24 EFL students from various nationalities. We met six hours per week for three months course from January to March 2010. We used New Headway Intermediate and New Headway Upper-intermediate as our textbooks. Bearing the purposes of listening, I employed constructive learning theory in my teaching for the three parts of listening: pre listening, while-listening and post listening.
1. YOUNG LEARNERS’ LANGUAGE STRATEGY USE SURVEY (YLLS)
Before the lesson for new cohort begins, I conducted a survey using Young Learners’ Language Strategy Use Survey (YLLS) that was designed by Cohen & Oxford (1990). The questionnaire was given to the students in the second week of the semester. The reason of using this instrument is because all of my students were young adults with 17 to 22 years old. Besides, it is simple and easy to comprehend as this questionnaire is categorised into four strategies such as listening, vocabulary, speaking and translation. The questionnaire is to measure learners’ interest and capabilities as it gives information about the way one tackles the tasks of learning a foreign language. The students were given 20 minutes to fill in the questionnaire as they only required marking the statements that best describe them. This instrument is valid and reliable because it is used all over the world and can give more information about learning techniques, once one have filled in all the questions (Thompson et al., 2004). The result of this questionnaire is discussed in the findings. As a result I used constructive learning theory for my teaching based on the scores the students obtained in the YLLS questionnaire. A sample of the questionnaire can be referred to Appendix 1.
2. NEW HEADWAY
I used New Headway Student Book (Intermediate and Upper-Intermediate by Liz and John Soars, 2003) as the main textbook to teach listening skills for EFL learners. The book consists of listening, reading, grammar and writing. However, only the aspect of listening was focused here. Since this book is mainly consists of while listening and post listening activities thus, other supplementary materials were used to support in teaching and learning listening skills.
Besides that, other equipments that were used for teaching listening in a classroom were cassette player, television and person. According to NCLRC (2004), teaching listening in an EFL classroom involves sender (i.e. a person, radio, television) to send message, and receiver (the listeners). Wong (2005) says that listening courses are combination of paper-based materials in the form of a course book, and sound-based materials in the form of audio on tapes/compact discs.
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CLASSROOM OBSERVATION
Pre-Listening
In a listening class, students were introduced on certain topics through pre-listening activities. According to Kline (1996) the main reason of having pre-listening is to build the listeners with certain background of knowledge on particular subject before the while-listening process. This is because students must have a specific purpose for listening. Therefore, my students were exposed to purpose of listening either listening for information, appreciation, emphatic, evaluation or combination of two or more.
This will enable them to gain a clear picture about a particular topic. Thus, I gave detailed explanation of each purpose of listening to the students for every topic in each session for nearly 20 minutes. Later I asked the students to give their ideas, views or suggestions on the topic to be discussed either individually or in group. In order to receive an attentive response from the students, I encouraged them to speak in the class, draw a mind-map on the topic, brainstorm ideas in group, fill in pre-listening worksheet, or bring them out of the class for observation or interviews. I also conducted other pre-listening activities as suggested by Underwood (1989) like decipher and talk based on pictures, list of items, making list of possibilities, ideas and suggestions, reading comprehension, labelling and informal talk and class discussion. These kinds of activities enable students to make predictions about lexis and content, create awareness of topic features and also able to provide information that would be available or related to the real world (Withnall, n.d).
While-Listening
After the pre-listening activities, I played the whole listening text through an audio player for the very first time to the students based on a particular topic that was done in the pre-listening activities. Later, I questioned them on their understanding. I played the same text again with pauses if they had difficulties in comprehension. The objective of while-listening is to create complete attention to listening task and demonstrate interest, look for meaning from the message that was heard, constantly check their understanding of message by making connections, confirming predictions, making inferences, evaluating and reflecting, take more meaningful notes, distinguish message from speaker, consider the context of the message, withhold judgement until comprehension of message is complete and finally follow up on presentation by reviewing notes, categorizing ideas, clarifying, reflecting, and acting upon the message as pointed out by Underwood (1989). Besides that, I also played a list of words, phrases or sentences for the student to repeat and follow the intonation and stress. The reason is learners also would be able to recognize the pronunciation of words, stress, rhythm and intonation in order to employ them in their own speech (Underwood 1989).
In learning through watching a movie, I played 20 -30 minutes of particular scenes from a movie. Then I replayed the main ideas of that scene. After that, I went through or discussed the exercises that they had done while watching to that particular scene. The students played an essential role in giving the answers. Students’ participation were observed and recorded to identify their capabilities to construct meaning and interact based on the message that they had listened.
Activities like marking or checking items in pictures, putting pictures in order, arranging items in patterns, form or chart completion, labelling, true or false statements, multiple-choice questions, text completion, spotting mistakes, predicting, and seeking specific items of information were conducted in while-listening to help learners develop the skill of extracting messages from a sender (Underwood, 1989). I employed these tasks as
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they allow learners to achieve the difficulty of listening text and exploit the purpose and value of the text. Therefore, I gave my students some time to perceive, evaluate and think about the message.
POST-LISTENING
Finally, I conducted post listening activities to ensure that my students have understood of that particular topic. They performed based on what they have heard to clarify meaning and extended their thinking through the activities. The main objective of conducting post-listening is as a practise for exams. The activities of post listening reflect the performance of students whether they have failed to understand or missed some parts of the listening message (Underwood, 1989). Therefore, In order to determine students’ understanding I made the class more interactive, lively and interesting by providing various types of listening activities in the classroom. For example, writing activities like writing on board, worksheets, or personal journal, game activities like word puzzle, formation of main ideas with chronological order and speaking activities like debate, forum or telling story. Besides, other tasks like completing a form or chart, extending notes into written responses, summarising, using information for problem-solving and decision-making activities, identifying relationships between speakers, establishing the mood, attitude and behaviour of the speaker, role-play and dictation (Underwood, 1989) were also used. Participation of students is essential in teaching and learning listening skills through constructive approach.
PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST
Pre-test is to measure students’ listening skills before they were exposed to teaching and learning listening skills through constructive approach whereas post-test is used to analyse students’ performance at the end of the teaching and learning listening skills, after the exposure of constructive approach. These tests were employed to gauge the effectiveness of constructivism in listening. The pre-test was conducted in the second week of the semester whereas post-test was done during the last week of the semester. For each test I played the listening cassette for two times for the students and they had to complete the test in 45 minutes.
The questions in the pre-test consist of multiple choices, arranging the main ideas in correct sequence, complete sentences based on pictures and arrange the pictures in correct order whereas the post-test comprises of writing true or false statements, fill in the missing gaps and fill in information in table. The questions were developed based on the purposes of listening and also from the perspective of constructive learning theory, which involves more thinking skills and activation of existing knowledge to infer or construct the meaning of the message. Different kinds of questions help to determine students’ capabilities in answering various questions in different context. Two sets of pre-test and post-test papers were designed for both intermediate and upper-intermediate learners and the papers were moderated and verified by two English language lectures.
All the above-mentioned activities were based on the topics from the textbook and the supplementary materials that were employed. Students were required to identify the purpose of listening in each activity and the ideas of those activities were taken from Underwood’s (1989) recommendations. These activities also pertinent to constructive approach for learners to construct meaning, develop understanding on a message and interact to make decision, solve problem or evaluate.
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All the subjects’ scores and performance were recorded and analysed. Their scores on tests and results from questionnaire were recorded in mean score and standard deviation to perceive the learners’ performance and the effectiveness of constructive approach in teaching listening skills.
Figure 1: A Flow-Chart of Methods that were Used in Teaching and Learning Listening Skills through Constructive Approach.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Students’ performances were gauged through four tasks: Questionnaire, classroom observation (pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening) and pre-test and post-test.
Research Question 1
Table 1 depicts the results that were obtained from the YLLS questionnaire. The table is divided into four categories based on language learning strategies: listening strategies, vocabulary strategies, speaking strategies and translation strategies. The mean score of listening strategy (5.99) is the highest followed by speaking (4.63), vocabulary (2.94), and translation strategy (1.33) as shown in Table 1. The results show that both intermediate and upper-intermediate students mostly use listening and speaking strategies in the learning process compared to other strategies. The mean scores for listening and speaking under the category of high are 6.04 and 3.14 respectively. The data also reveals that the subjects have difficulties in vocabulary and translation strategies to perceive and convey messages.
Table 1: The Mean and Standard Deviation of Four Learning Strategies that Employed by Intermediate and Upper-Intermediate Students
Category
Level
High
Medium
Low
Total
Mean
S.D
Mean
S.D
Mean
S.D
Mean
S.D
Listening
Intermediate
5.62
3.78
9.15
3.21
3.23
2.31
6.00
3.10
Upper Intermediate
6.45
3.83
8.45
3.17
3.09
2.34
5.99
3.11
Total
6.04
3.81
8.8
3.19
3.16
2.33
5.99
2.97
Vocabulary
Intermediate
1.15
1.21
4.15
2.03
2.69
2.21
2.66
1.82
Upper Intermediate
2
1.67
2.55
1.57
3.45
2.11
2.67
1.78
Total
1.58
1.44
3.35
1.80
3.07
2.16
2.94
1.89
Speaking
Intermediate
3
2.61
6.46
3.41
3.54
2.96
4.33
2.99
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Upper Intermediate
3.27
2.24
6.82
2.32
2.91
2.34
4.33
2.30
Total
3.14
2.43
6.64
2.87
3.23
2.65
4.63
2.70
Translation
Intermediate
1.31
1.03
1.92
1.19
0.77
0.83
1.33
1.02
Upper Intermediate
0.64
0.67
1.91
1.45
1.45
1.21
1.33
1.11
Total
0.98
0.85
1.92
1.32
1.11
1.02
1.33
1.06
Note: 1) High - Always or almost always used, usually used, 2) Medium – Sometimes used, 3) Low – Generally not used, never or almost never used.
However, the four strategies (listening, vocabulary, speaking and translation) are essential in teaching and learning listening among EFL students. All these strategies are inter-related with the purposes of listening: comprehensive, critical, appreciative and therapeutic listening. These are exposed through the pre, while, and post listening activities and exercises, where subjects are required to convey, interpret, and construct the message using the above strategies. The result from the YLLS questionnaire indicates the significance of the four strategies for the subjects to interact and transact the meaning of the message to the class and also to the facilitators. This shows the relevance between the four strategies and constructive approach that stresses on social interaction and construction of an understanding (Brooks & Brooks, 1993; Weisglass, 1990; Kline, 1996; Zhang, 2007).
Based on the classroom observation for the first four weeks students performed in average in pre listening, while listening and post listening activities. This was because they had difficulties in interpreting and conveying the message because lack of knowledge on vocabulary. They also had problems to put on the words in correct sentences. Thus, many of them unable to respond effectively during the listening class. There were also some students who asked assistance from friends of the same nationality to explain or convey about the ideas. These students attempted to participate in classroom discussion and also in other kinds of activities although they were not good in speaking. However, there were some students that have lack of confidence to share their knowledge and also afraid of making mistakes. Thus, I had to do more discussion (open-talk) and role-plays to make the students involve in the classroom activities. Besides that, time-to-time of motivation is the main source to make the students to join the classroom activities.
Subjects performed better at the end of the semester. They became more interactive and tried to interact the meaning of a message by relating to the events that happening in the world today. They shared their existing knowledge to the whole classroom and managed to break the listening barriers that they had before. When the students were asked about their progress in listening skills, most of them answered that motivation and various kinds of activities helped them to improve. This revealed that teaching and listening through constructive approach really improved the subjects’ listening skills and also managed to build self-confidence in them. They are also capable in identifying the purpose of listening and determining main ideas in the listening piece.
In short, listening involves a great deal of effort of focusing on hearing input, create meaning and relate the message to existing knowledge (Redmon, 1996; Hasan, 2000) and constructive approach emphasizes thinking skills that are developed through accurate understanding on the message that they hear. Thompson et al. (2004), Weisglass (1990), Rost (2002) and Flowerdew (1994) affirm that listening is an active process that involves interaction and activation of prior knowledge. Thus, it can be said that purposes of listening and constructive learning theory are inter-related and they can help the students to make meaning and perceive a message by activating their existing knowledge.
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RESEARCH QUESTION 2
Table 2 shows the results of pre-test and post-test from intermediate and upper-intermediate students whereas Figure 1 depicts the subjects’ overall scores in both pre-test and post-test. The grading scale of the results is Grade A (80% - 100%), Grade B (66% - 79%), Grade C (50% - 65%) and Grade D (0% - 49%). The passing marks are from Grade A to Grade C whereas Grade D is known as failed.
Table 2: The Percentage of Subjects’ Scores in Pre-test and Post-test from Intermediate and Upper-Intermediate Classrooms.
Grades
Tests (Percentage % of Subjects’ Scores)
Pre test
Post-test
Intermediate
Upper-Intermediate
Intermediate
Upper-Intermediate
A
15.38
27.27
53.85
36.36
B
0
18.18
30.77
27.27
C
53.85
18.18
15.38
27.27
D
30.77
36.37
0
9.10
Figure 2: The Percentage of Subjects’ Scores in Pre-test and Post-test
Figure 2 shows the percentage of subjects’ scores in both pre-test and post-test. The result reveals that 71% passed and 29% failed in the pre-test. However, with the constructive approach in teaching and learning cycle in listening produced 96% passed in the post-test with only 4 failures. The main reason of high failures in the pre-test was the subjects had difficulties in understanding the message from the sender. However, at the end of the course they have learned to infer and construct the content of the message, interact and convey the meanings and identify the purposes of listening. Their well performance can be referred to their scores in the post-test. The result shows that 46% of the subjects scored an A compared to 25% in the pre-test. The findings determine that constructive approach contributes efficiently in teaching and learning listening skills.
This reveals that teaching and learning listening through constructive approach is essential to allow listeners to employ their thinking skills relate to the message that they received. As
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Richard (1983) states that learners need the ability to identify the purpose and scope of a lecture, identify the topic of a message and follow topic development, and identify the role of discourse markers in signalling the structure of a message. In order to be effective listeners, they need to focus more specific than just attending to what is being said. Therefore, Thomas and Dyer (2005) define that effective listening is a skill that can be achieved through study and practice.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, my effort to teach listening skills through constructive learning theory really helped my students. They managed to overcome listening barriers and able to interact with one another with ideas, expression and critical thinking. It is true that constructive learning theory plays an essential role in teaching and learning listening skills (Glasserfeld, 1989; Weisglass, 1990; Brooks & Brooks, 1993; Rost, 2002). Moreover, data and studies show that the ideas of constructive approach truly related to the purposes of listening. It means learners are required to interpret, feel, express, evaluate, convey, construct, interact and understand the meaning of the message that they have received.
The results show that initially the subjects had low self-confidence, inability to speak and express their ideas or perceive messages and many other barriers but they progressed through the exposure of constructive approach in teaching and learning listening skills. As said by Thomas and Dyer (2005), lessons and activities are important elements to develop the listening skills among learners. I found my students have improved and developed their listening skills through variety of activities. Most of the activities that were carried out were taken from Underwood (1989). Weisglass (1990) says that learning listening skills through constructive approach will help learners to think critically, comprehend messages, and express feelings that make sense in our society or world by only triggering their prior knowledge.

TEORIPEMEROLEHANBAHASAPERTAMA

TugasanIndividuolehJaikun1TEORIPEMEROLEHANBAHASAPERTAMA1.0PengenalanPembelajaranbahasapertamasamaadabahasaibundasesuatusuku,BahasaMelayuatauBahasaInggerisdisekolahmelibatkanpengajaranbeberapakemahiranasas,iaitukemahiranmendengar,bertutur,membacadanmenulis.Setiappelajarperlumenguasaikemahiraniniuntukmemastikanmerekabolehmengikutipembelajaranyangseterusnya.Namundemikiansenariopendidikandaridulusehinggasekarangmasihlagimenunjukkanbahawakemahiran-kemahiranitumasihlagigagaldikuasaiolehsebahagianpelajarwalaupunsudahmenjejakkankakidisekolahmenengah.2.0ProsesPemerolehanBahasaPertamaProsespemerolehandanpenguasaanbahasakanak-kanakmerupakansatuperkarayangrencamdancukupmenakjubkanbagiparapenyelidikdalambidanglinguisitk.Bagaimanamanusiamemperolehbahasamerupakansatuisuyangamatmengagumkandansukardibuktikan.Pelbagaiteoridaribidangdisiplinyangberbezatelahdikemukakanolehparapengkajiuntukmenerangkanbagaimanaprosesiniberlakudalamkalangankanak-kanak.Memangdiakuibahawasamaadadisedariataupuntidak,sistem-sistemlinguistikdikuasaidenganpantasolehindividukanakkanakwalaupunumumnyatiadapengajaranformal.“…learningafirstlanguageissomethingeverychilddoessuccessfully,inamatterofafewyearsandwithouttheneedforformallessons.”(LanguageAcquisition:On-line).Sungguhpunrangsanganbahasayangditerimaolehkanak-kanaktidakteraturdanterhad,namunmerekaberupayamemahamisistem-sistemlinguistikbahasapertamasebelummenjangkauusialimatahun.Fenomenayangkelihatanmenakjubkaninitelahberlakudanterusberlakudalamkalangansemuamasyarakatdanbudayapadasetiapmasa.Mengikutpenyelidiksecaraempirikal,terdapatduateoriutamayangmembincangkanbagaimanamanusiamemperolehbahasa.Teoripertamamempertahankanbahawabahasadiperolehmanusiasecaraalamiahataudinuranikan.TeoriinijugadikenalisebagaiHipotesisNuranidalamlinguistik.Teoriyangkeduamempertahankanbahawabahasadiperolehmanusiasecaradipelajari.
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun23.0PemerolehanBahasaPertamaKajiansaintifikdalambidangpemerolehanbahasatelahdimulakansejakkurunke-16lagi(Zulkifly,1990:326-331).KajianinidimulakanolehTiedemann,seorangahlibiologiberbangsaJermanpadatahun1787.CharlesDarwin,pengasasteorievolusiturutmenjalankankajiandalambidangpemerolehanbahasapadatahun1877.Kajian-kajianyangseterusnyatelahdilakukanolehPreyerpadatahun1882dankajianSallypadatahun1885.Selepaskajian-kajianperintisiniterdapatbanyakkajianlainlagiyangmengkajibahan-bahandansubjek-subjekyangberbezauntukmelihataspek-aspekyangberkaitandenganpemerolehansistem-sistembahasa.Kajian-kajianterkinimeliputiaspekkajianperbandinganpemerolehanbahasaantarabahasayangberbeza,misalnyaperbandinganantarabahasaInggerisdenganbahasaItaliyangdilakukanolehAntonellaDevescovidanlain-lainpadatahun2003(ACross-LinguisticStudyoftheRelationshipbetweenGrammar&LexicalDevelopment:On-line).Pemerolehanbahasamerupakansatuprosesperkembanganbahasamanusia.Lazimnyapemerolehanbahasapertamadikaitkandenganperkembanganbahasakanak-kanakmanakalapemerolehanbahasakeduabertumpukepadaperkembanganbahasaorangdewasa(LanguageAcquisition:On-line).Perkembanganbahasakanak-kanakpulabermaksudpemerolehanbahasaibundakanak-kanakberkenaan.Namunterdapatjugapandanganlainyangmengatakanbahawaterdapatduaprosesyangterlibatdalampemerolehanbahasadalamkalangankanak-kanakiaitupemerolehanbahasadanpembelajaranbahasa.Duafaktorutamayangseringdikaitkandenganpemerolehanbahasaialahfaktornurturedanfaktornature.Namunparapengkajibahasadanlinguistiktidakmenolakkepentingantentangpengaruhfaktor-faktorsepertibiologidanpersekitaran.Kajian-kajiantelahdijalankanuntukmelihatsamaadamanusiamemangsudahdilengkapidenganalatbiologiuntukkebolehanberbahasasepertiyangdidakwaolehahlilinguistikNoamChomskydanLennebergataupunkebolehanberbahasaialahhasildaripadakebolehankognisiumumdaninteraksimanusiadenganpersekitarannya.MengikutPiaget,semuakanak-kanaksejaklahirtelahdilengkapidenganalatnuraniyangberbentukmekanikalumumuntuksemuakebolehanmanusiatermasuklahkebolehanberbahasa.Alatmekanismekognitifyangbersifatumuminilahdigunakanuntukmenguasaisegala-galanyatermasuklahbahasa.BagiChomskydanMillerpula,alatyangkhususini
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun3dikenalisebagaiLanguageAcquisitionDevice(LAD)yangfungsinyasamasepertiyangpernahdikemukakanolehLennebergyangdikenalisebagai“InnateProspensityforLanguage”.LADdikatakantelahdimilikiolehsetiapanaksecarasemulajadidandenganalatnuraniiniakanmembolehkankanak-kanakmampumemperolehbahasaibundanyadenganmudahdancepat.MengikutBowen(Languageagesandstages:On-line)pembelajaranbahasabermulasejakbayidilahirkan.Bayi-bayiyangbarulahirsudahmulamengecambunyi-bunyiyangterdapatdisekitarnya.MengikutBrookes(dlm.AbdullahYusoffdanCheRabiahMohamed,1995:456),kelahiranataupemerolehanbahasadalambentukyangpalingsederhanabagisetiapbayibermulapadawaktubayiituberumurlebihkurang18bulandanmencapaibentukyanghampirsempurnaketikaberumurlebihkurangempattahun.BagiMangantarSimanjuntak(1982)pula,pemerolehanbahasabermaksudpenguasaanbahasaolehseseorangsecaratidaklangsungdandikatakanaktifberlakudalamkalangankanak-kanakdalamlingkunganumur2-6tahun.Halinitidakbermaknaorangdewasatidakmemperolehbahasatetapikadarnyatidaksehebatkanak-kanak.Pemerolehanbahasadikaitkandenganpenguasaansesuatubahasatanpadisedariataudipelajarisecaralangsungiaitutanpamelaluipendidikansecaraformaluntukmempelajarinya,sebaliknyamemperolehnyadaribahasayangdituturkanolehahlimasyarakatdisekitarnya.Beliauseterusnyamenegaskanbahawakajiantentangpemerolehanbahasasangatpentingterutamanyadalambidangpengajaranbahasa.Pengetahuanyangcukuptentangprosesdanhakikatpemerolehanbahasabolehmembantubahkanmenentukankejayaandalambidangpengajaranbahasa.Padaumumnya,setiapbayiyangnormalakanmengalamiprosesperkembanganbahasasecaraberperingkat-peringkatdanbersifatarbitrari.Perkembanganbahasaakanmenjadilebihmantapdansempurnamengikutperkembanganusiakanak-kanaktersebut.MengikutMangantarSimanjuntak,1987(dlm.Tay.2000:228)peringkatperkembanganbahasainibolehdibahagikepada(a)peringkatmengagah;(b)peringkatholofrasa;(c)peringkatucapanduakata;(d)peringkatpermulaantatabahasa;(e)peringkatmenjelangtatabahasadewasa;dan(f)peringkatkecekapanpenuh.Seseorangkanak-kanakakanmelaluitigaprosespemerolehanbahasaiaituprosespemerolehankomponenfonologi,sintaksisdansemantik.Ketiga-tigakomponeninidikatakanberlakusecaraserentak.
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun4MengikutMenndanStoelGammon(Babbling:On-line),dalamperkembanganbahasa,tempuhvokalisasipralinguistikatautempuhmengagahbolehdibahagikankepadalimatahapiaitutahaptangisan,“cooing”,tahapbermaindenganvokal,tahap“canonicalbabbling”(bermulapadaumur6bulan)dantahap“conversationalbabbling”yangbermulapadaumurlebihkurang10bulan.Seterusnyaapabilamencapaiumur12-18bulan,kanak-kanakakanmulamenggunakanbunyiatausatukatauntukmerujukkepadasesuatuyangbermakna,misalnyabunyi“kereta”untukmerujukkepadabendakeretaataumengujarkansatukata“kereta”untukmewakilisatuayatyangmungkinbermakna“Mama,sayanaknaikkereta”.Apabilamenjangkauumur18-24bulan,kanak-kanaksudahdapatmenghasilkankata-katayangmembentukayatpendek.Peringkatmengagahyangberlakudalamtahunpertamakanak-kanakmerupakansatuprosesyangnormalVokalisasikanak-kanakseterusnyaakanberkembangmengikutperkembanganumurkanak-kanakberkenaan.Darisegipemerolehankomponensemantik,prosesnyabolehdibahagikankepadaempatperingkatiaituperingkatpenyempitanertikata,peringkatgeneralisasiberlebihan,peringkatmedansemantikdanperingkatgeneralisasi.Perkembanganpenguasaansintaksispulaterbahagikepadatigaperingkatiaitutahaptelegraf,tahapmorfemdantahaptransformasimanakaladalamperkembanganfonologi,kanak-kanakmelaluiperingkatagahaniaitumenghasilkanbunyisecararambang.Kanak-kanakmulamemperolehfonem-fonemyangkasardanketaraperbezaanfiturnya,kemudianmenujukepadafonem-fonemyanghalusperbezaanfiturnya.Pemerolehanfonologiawalkanak-kanaklebihterpengaruhkepadasebutanibubapaataukonsepmotherese.4.0PemerolehanSintaksisSecaraumumnya,parapenyelidikdalambidangpemerolehanbahasaberanggapanbahawapemerolehansintaksishanyabermulaapabilakanak-kanakdapatmengembangkanduaataulebihkata.Dengankatalain,peringkatsatukataatauyangseringdisebutsebagaiperingkatholofrasatidakdianggapsebagaititikpermulaanpenguasaansistemsintaksis.Steinbergmembahagikanperingkatperkembanganpenguasaansintaksiskepadatigatahapiaitutahaptelegraf,morfemdantransformasi.Padatahaptelegraf,kanak-kanakmengucapkangabungankatadengancaraamatringkaskeranaberlakupenjimatankatayangketerlaluan.Padatahapinikanak-kanakjarangsekalimengucapkankata-katatugas.Ayatdibinadengankata-kataintisahajaataudikenalisebagaiayatminimal.Padatahapmorfem,kanak-kanakmula
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun5menggunakankata-katadenganlebihrencamdaripadatahaptelegraf.RogerBrown(CalculatingPercentAccuracyforGrammaticalMorphemesinObligatoryContexts:On-line)dalamkajiannyatentangbahasaInggeristelahmengenalpasti14morfemdalamprosespemerolehansintaksiskanak-kanakmengikuturutantertentu.5.0AplikasiTeori-TeoriPemerolehanBahasaBerikutmerupakan3daripadabeberapateori-teoriyangmengkhususkepadapemerolehanbahasayangpernahdikemukakan,iaituTeoriBehaviouris,MentalisdanKonstruktivis.2.1.TeoriMentalis(pelopor–Bloomfield,EdwardSapir,Fries,BoasdanBrooks)AhlipsikologiyangturutberpegangpadateoriinitermasuklahB.FSkinner,Pavlov,HulldanThorndike.Golonganmentalisberpendapatbahawabahasadikuasaimelaluiprosespengulangan.Olehyangdemikianprosespengajaranbahasaharuslahmenekankanlatihandanpengulanganyangbanyak.Bagimeningkatkankemahiranbahasa,satubentuklatihanmekanismebersistemperludilakukan.Teoriinijugamementingkanpersekitaranmuriduntukmembantuprosespengajarandanpembelajaran.Halinitermasukpelakuanguru,kawan-kawanmerekasendirisertasuasanadalambilikdarjah.5.1.1Kebaikan-kebaikanteoriiniialah:a.Prosespemerolehan/penguasaansesuatubahasaadalahmelaluilatihansecaraberulang-ulang.Olehyangdemikianprosespengajaranbahasadapatdilakukansecaralebihbersistem.b.Mementingkanpersekitaranmuriduntukmembantuprosespengajarandanpembelajaran.Halinitermasukpelakuanguru,kawan-kawanmerekasendirisertasuasanadalambilikdarjah.c.Menekankanaspekpeneguhan.Inibermaknamuridakandapatmempelajarisesuatubahasadenganadanyaganjarandanpeneguhan.5.1.2KelemahanWalaupundemikianterdapatbeberapakelemahanteoriiniiaitu:a.Pembelajaranhanyaberlakuapabilamuridmenerimarangsangandariluar,contohnyadalambentukpenggunaanbahanbantumengajar.Inibermaknadalamprosespengajarandan
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun6pembelajaran,guruperlumenghasilkanbahan-bahanbantubagimembolehkanpengajarandanpembelajarandilaksanakan.b.Pembelajaranbahasadiperolehimelaluiganjarandanhukuman.Inibermaknagurumestibersamamuridsepanjangpengajarandanpembelajaran.Olehitupembelajaranbahasasukardijalankandenganmenggunakankaedahpembelajaransecarakendiri.c.Pembelajaraninikurangmenekankanaspekpembelajaransecarakendirikeranaialebihmenekankankepadaaspekpengukuhan,iaitugurumembimbingmuriddalamprosespembelajaranmereka.Inibermaknamuridmengharapkanbantuandaripadaguruuntukbelajar.5.1.3PengaplikasianteoridalamkelasbacaanDalamkelasbacaan,gurubolehmengaplikasikanteoriinimelaluilatihansecaraberulang-ulang.InibermaknaapabilamengajarkemahiranmenyebutsukukatacontohnyaKV+KVK(LUSUHdanlain-lain),guruakanmemintapelajarmengulangisebutanbagisukukatatersebutbeberapakalimengikutsebutanyangbetulsepertiyangdiajar.Berkemungkinankekerapanpengulanganitubergantungkepadapenguasaanpelajartersebut.Sekiranyabudakitucepatbelajar,pengulanganadalahsedikittetapijikasebaliknya,pengulanganadalahagaklamasesuaidengankemahiranpelajar.Setelahmenguasaikemahiranmenyebutsukukata,guruakandiperkenalkandenganperkataan-perkataanyangterbinadaripadasukukatatadi.Seterusnyapelajardimintamemberikancontohperkataanyangterbinadaripadasukukatatersebut.Prosesiniadalahberulangkalisehinggapenguasaanterhadapkemahiranberlaku.5.2.TeoriPembelajaranMentalis(Pelopor–NoamChomsky)Teoriinimenekankanfungsimentalseseorangmanusiaitu.MenurutChomsky,kanak-kanakakanmengalamibeberapaperingkatperkembangandalampemikiraniaitubermuladariperingkatterendahderiamotor,kemudiankepadapra-operasi,operasikonkritdanoperasiformal.Sebagaicontoh,dalampembelajaranbahasa,kanak-kanakakanmenguasaikemahiranmemahamiterlebihdahulusebelummerekabelajarbertutur.
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun75.2.1Kebaikana.Menekankankepadaprosesperkembanganpemikirankanak-kanak.Olehitupembelajaranbahasaakandiajarsecaraberperingkat-peringkatmengikutkematanganmuridberkenaan.Denganituprosespembelajaranberlakusecarasistematikdangurudapatmengawalkadarkemajuanpembelajaranmuridsecaraberperingkat-peringkat.b.Menekankankepadapembelajaranmengikutkadarkendiri,dimanamuridberpeluangbelajarsesuatupengetahuanataukemahiranberdasarkanminat,kebolehandantahapkognitifmerekasendiri.c.Menekankankaedahpengajaranberpusatkanpelajar.Pengajaranberpusatkanpelajarbermaksudpelajarterlibatsecaraaktifdalamaktivitipembelajarandanpenggunaanbahan-bahanpembelajaranberbandingguru.Olehituiaamatsesuaidigunakanuntukmengajarkemahiranberbahasa.5.2.2Kelemahana.Teoriinimementingkankemahirantulisan,yangkemudiannyadiikutidengankemahiranbacaan.Manakalakemahiranlisanpulakurangdiberikanperhatian.Iniakanmenyebabkansesetengahmuridhanyamahirmenggunakanbahasadalamtulisandanbacaan,tetapilemahdalamlisan(mendengardanbertutur).5.2.3AplikasidalamkelasbacaanGuruyangmengaplikasikanteoriinidalampengajarandanpembelajaranakanmelakukanperancangandenganmembuatpemeringkatankemahiran.Inibermakna,muridakanmemperolehsesuatukemahiranitusecaraberperingkat-peringkatsesuaidengankemahirandanpenguasaanmereka.Kemahiranmembacaakandimulakandengankemahiranpalingasasiaitumengenalsukukata,danseterusnyakemahiranitudipertingkatkankesukarannyasehinggalahmuridberkenaandapatmembacasebuahayatyanglengkap.Sebagaicontoh,dalampelaksanaanpengajaranini,gurumenetapkan10kriteriayangperludikuasaiolehmuridsebagaibuktimerekatelahmenguasaikemahiranmembacayangtelahditetapkan.Padapembelajaranpertama,gurumungkinmenetapkanduakriteriayangperludicapai,kemudian
TugasanIndividuolehJaikun8dualagipadapembelajaranakandatangdanbegitulahseterusnyasehinggasemuamuridberjayamencapaikriteriatersebut.5.3.TeoriKonstruktivisBerbezadengankedua-duateoriterdahulu,Konstruktivismerupakansatuteoriyangberpusatkanpelajar.Inibermaknapelajaradalahbergeraksecaraaktifuntukmemastikanmerekadapatmemahamisesuatutopikyangdiajarolehguru.Teoriinimengetengahkanpendapatbahawapelajarmempelajarisesuatuituberdasarkanpengalamansediaadamereka.Olehyangdemikian,menurutteoriini,guruperlumenyediakanaktivitiyangsesuaidenganpengalamansediaadapelajarsertadapatmengaitkanpengalamanitudenganpembelajaranyangbakaldiajar.Pelajarpulahendaklahmampumempergunakanpengetahuanbaruituuntukkegunaanmasahadapan.Peranangurudalamkelashanyalahsebagaipemudahcara,pemantaudanpenggubaldisiplin.Pendekataninibiasanyaakanmembuahkanhasilyangbaikkeranapelajarakanlebihmemahamisesuatuperkaraitusekiranyadiaterlibatsecaraaktif.5.3.1Kebaikana.Konstruktivismenekankancarabelajarsecarareflektif,iaitumengaitkanpengalamanbarudenganpengetahuansediaadamuridsupayamerekadapatmenggambarkanperkarayangdiajardanmemudahkanmerekauntukfaham.b.Teoripemerolehanbahasainimenekankanpembelajaransecarakendiri.Muridakanberusahauntukmemperkembangkankemahiran/pengetahuanmerekaberdasarkanpenerokaandanpenemuanhasildaripadaaktivitipenyelesaianmasalah.c.PembelajaranbahasamelaluiKonstruktivisdapatmemupuksemangatberdikaridikalanganmurid.Olehitumerekadapatmenjalankanaktivitipembelajaranmeskipuntanpakehadiranguru,ataupundiluarwaktukelas.

Tuesday, 29 November 2011

TEORI PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

Tugas utama seorang pengajar atau guru adalah untuk memudahkan pembelajaran para pelajar. Untuk memenuhi tugas ini, pengajar atau guru bukan sahaja harus dapat menyediakan suasana pembelajaran yang menarik dan harmonis, tetapi mereka juga menciptakan pengajaran yang berkesan. Ini bermakna guru perlu mewujudkan suasana pembelajaran yang dapat meransangkan minat pelajar di samping sentiasa memikirkan kebajikan dan keperluan pelajar.
Dalam sesi pembelajaran, guru kerap berhadapan dengan pelajar yang berbeza dari segi kebolehan mereka. Hal ini memerlukan kepakaran guru dalam menentukan strategi pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Ini bermakna, guru boleh menentukan pendekatan, memilih kaedah dan menetapkan teknik-teknik tertentu yang sesuai dengan perkembangan dan kebolehan pelajar. Strategi yang dipilih itu, selain berpotensi memeransangkan pelajar belajar secara aktif, ia juga harus mampu membantu menganalisis konsep atau idea dan berupaya menarik hati pelajar serta dapat menghasilkan pembelajaran yang bermakna.
Perlunya guru menarik perhatian pelajar dalam sesuatu pengajaran, aktiviti-aktiviti yang dipilih hendaklah yang menarik dan mempunyai potensi yang tinggi untuk membolehkan isi pelajaran dan konsep-konsep yang diterjemahkan secara jelas. Aktiviti harus boleh mempengaruhi intelek, emosi dan minat pelajar secara berkesan.
Dalam merancang persediaan mengajar, aktiviti-aktiviti yang dipilih perlu mempunyai urutan yang baik. Ia perlu diselaraskan dengan isi kemahiran dan objektif pengajaran. Lazimnya aktiviti yang dipilih itu adalah gerak kerja yang mampu memberi sepenuh pengaruh terhadap perhatian, berupaya meningkatkan kesan terhadap intelek, ingatan, emosi, minat dan kecenderungan serta mampu membantu guru untuk menjelaskan pengajarannya.
Dalam merancang aktiviti mengajar yang berkesan dan bermakna kepada para pelajar, guru haruslah memikirkan terlebih dahulu tentang kaedah dan teknik yang akan digunakan. Pemilihan strategi secara bijaksana mampu menjamin kelicinan serta keberkesanan penyampaian sesuatu subjek atau modul.
Di antara kaedah dan teknik yang boleh digunakan oleh guru ialah :
  • Kaedah sumbang saran
  • Kaedah tunjuk cara (demonstrasi)
  • Simulasi atau kaedah pengajaran kumpulan
  • Kaedah perbincangan atau kaedah penyelesaian masalah
  • Kaedah oudioligual
  • Kaedah kodkognetif
  • Kaedah projek
Penggunaan kaedah dan teknik yang pelbagai akan menjadikan sesuatu pengajaran itu menarik dan akan memberi ruang untuk membolehkan pelajar terlibat secara aktif dan bergiat sepanjang sesi pengajaran tanpa merasa jemu dan bosan. Dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran, terdapat beberapa kaedah dan teknik yang berkesan boleh digunakan oleh guru. Oleh yang demikian pemilihan terhap kaedah dan teknik pelulah dilakukan secara berhati-hati supaya cara-cara ini tidak menghalang guru melaksanakan proses pembentukan konsep-konsep secara mudah dan berkesan. Kaedah projek yang diasaskan oelh John Deney misalnya, menggalakkan pelajar mempelajari sesuatu melalui pengalaman, permerhatian dan percubaan. Pelajar merasa seronok menjalankan ujikaji aktiviti lain yang dilakukan dalam situasi sebenar dan bermakna. Biasanya kaedah ini memberi peluang kepada pelajar menggunakan kemudahan alat deria mereka untuk membuat pengamatan dan penanggapan secara berkesan. Dari segi penggunaan teknik pula, guru boleh menggunakan apa sahaja teknik yang difikirkan sesuai sama ada teknik menerang, teknik mengkaji, teknik penyelesaian mudah, teknik bercerita dan teknik perbincangan. Penggunaan contoh-contoh adalah asas dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Hal ini kerana ia dapat melahirkan pemikiran yang jelas dan berkesan. Biasanya seorang guru menerangkan idea-idea yang komplek kepada sekumpulan pelajar, guru itu dikehendaki memberi contoh-contoh dan iluktrasi. Idea yang abstrak, konsep-konsep yang baru dan susah, lebih mudah difahami apabila guru menggunakan contoh-contoh dengan ilutrasi yang mudah dan konkrit. Misalnya, dalam bentuk lisan iaitu dengan mengemukakan analogi, bercerita, mengemukakan metafora dan sebagainya. Contoh-contoh boleh juga boleh ditunjukkan dalam bentuk visual, lakaran, ilustrasi dan lain-lain.
3. Memory
  • Address three pressing problem you have faced in your class and solve these problem based on what you now know about Memory.
Kesediaan belajar antara seorang individu dengan seorang individu yang lain biasnya tidak setara. Ini kerana tahap atau proses pertumbuhan atau perkembangan mereka tidak sama dan searah. Walaupun terdapat semacam satu kecenderungan yang sama dalam pertumbuhan mereka tetapi fizikal, mental, emosi dan social mereka tetap berbeza. Biasanya hal-hal seperti inilah yang banyak menimbulkan masalah kepada guru, sama ada pada peringkat kesediaan perancangan atau pada peringkat melaksanakan pelajaran mereka. Masalah perbezaan kesediaan belajar boleh dikaitkan daripada tiga sudut pandangan dari segi kematangan a. kematangan fizikal b. kematangan intelek c. kematangan emosi
a. Kematangan fizikal Pekembangan pada fizikal manusia pada amnya, menunjukkan kecekalan yang tinggi. Namun begitu, perbezaan yang besar antara mereka. Guru-guru perlu berhati-hati terhadap perbezaan yang wujud di kalangan pelajar. Dalam konteks kesediaan belajar, perhatian terhadap corak pertumbuhan dan perkembangan fizikal seperti ini adalah amat penting. Pengetahuan tentang apa yang dijangkakan akan berlaku dalam pertumbuhan perkembangan normal berupaya membantu guru menyediakan asas pembelajaran. Perkembangan teknik dan kaedah pengajaran dan penggunaan alat Bantu mengajar. Jika berlaku penyimpangan terhadap cirri-ciri yang normal di kalangan pelajar, guru harus mampu menghadapinya. Guru sepatutnya boleh membuat apa sahaja penyesuaian yang berfaedah. Tindakan berhati-hati daripada guru ini boleh memajukan lagi perkembangan potensi semula jadi pelajar.
b. Kematangan intelek (mentel) Kebolehan mental ditakrifkan sebagai kebolehan mentafsir deria (persepsi), kebolehan membina bahan-bahan yang tidak ada pada deria (imagenasi), kobolehan untuk mengingati kembali apa yang telah dialami (ingatan) dan kebolehan meneruskan kesimpulan tentang hal-hal yang diprolehi daripada pengalaman ataupun yang abstrak. Kematangan intelek tidak mempunyai hadnya. Biasanya, ia menunjukkan kemajuan, iaitu bermula daripada kegiatan mental yang paling mudah bergerak kepada proses mental yang lebih kompleks. Pertumbuhan inteleks seseorang itu dapat ditentukan pada tahapsejauh manakah kemajuan itu berada. Dalam hubungannya dengan kesediaan belajar, perubahan-perubahan perkembangan dalam keupayaan intelek seperti ini patutlah diberi perhatian. Walaupun perkembangan intelek itu merupakan proses yang berlaku secara berperingkat-peringkat dan berterusan, namun proses ini tidak sama bagi semua pelajar. Memang terdapat kecenderungan am yang sama dalam kalangan mereka yang sedang menjelani proses kematangan tetapi kadar pertumbuhan adalah berbeza-beza. Oleh yang demikian, mereka yang bertanggungjawabdengan pembelajaran dan pengajaran perlulah mengambil kira perbezaan-perbezaan ini dan memikirkan dengan teliti fakta ini sebelum merancang dan seterusnya melaksanakan tugas mereka dalam kelas.
c. Kematangan Emosi Emosi menggambarkan satu kaedaan yang dikaitkan oleh dorangan-dorongan melalui satu cara tertentu. Ia melibatkan gangguan dalaman yang meluas dan mengandungi nada perbezaan atau berbagai-bagai darjah kepuasan dan gangguan . Ahli-ahli psikologi dan fisiologi sependapat bahawa emosi melibatkan perasaan, gerak hati dan tindak balas fisiologi. GGGerak hati atau desakan dalaman yang mengarahkan sesuatu jenis pelakuan mungkin terjadi dalam perbagai gabungan dan peringkat, secara umum, emosi dapat diertikan sebagai suatu pengalaman yang penuh perasaan, yang melibatkan penyalarasan dalaman secara am dengan keadaan mental dan fisiologi yang bergerak dalam diri individu dan kemudiannya diperlihatkan dalam bentuk tingkah laku yang nyata. 4. Metacognition - What is your reaction to the video on metacognition? - Explain in your own words three or more benefits of applying metacognition in your classes AND - How would you apply metagnition in your classes?
Metacognition dapatlah ditafsir sebagai elemen yang mempunyai kaitan rapat dengan kesedaran tentang proses yang dilaksnankan secara berfikir. Menurut Bronw (1980) metacognition’ adalah merupakan ilmu pengetahuan atau kesedaran yang terdapat kepada seseorang yang membolehkannya. Gadner (1992) berpendapat kebolehan mengawal proses berfikir ini adalah dipengaruhi oleh umur dan pengalaman seseorang. Seorang pelajar lebih tua dari segi umur dan tinggi dari aspek persekolahan boleh menyedari, mengawal dan mengamalkan starategi berfikir berhubung dengan satu-satu masalah lebih baik daripada pelajar yang muda dan rendah tahap persekolahannya. Boyer dalam model ‘ Functional Thinking’ nya menyatakan lebih jelas bahawa ‘ Metacognition adalah merangkumi kebolehan seseorang, merancang (planning), memantau (monitoring). Dan menilai (assessing) satu-satunya keputusan atau idea yang hendak diutarakan “Boyer menjelaskan bahawa ‘metacognatinion’ terletak di luar kebolehan berfikir (cognition) itu sendiri. Menurutnya “ Metacognative operations are applied to the strategies and skill used to produce meaning rather then diretctly to data and experience. Metacognation seeks to control these meaning-making aperations by which one seeks to make meaning”. Dengan ini ini metacognition dapatlah disimpulkan sebagai kebolehan seseorang dalam mengaplikasikan startegi yang betul dalam proses melahirkan idea tetapi bukannya buah fikiran yang dilahirkan atau bukan hasil sebenar berfikit itu sendiri. Seseorang yang ingin menyelesaikan satu masalah ekonominya terpaksa mengalami proses merancang , memantau, menilai keputusan yang akan dibuat. Proses merancang, memantau dan menilai ini ada kaitan langsung dengan keputusan yang akan dibuat atau diambil dalam penyelasaian masalah tersebut.
Terdapat kebaikkan dalam mengaplikasikan Matacognitive: 1. Kaedah perbincangan Dalam aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran di dalam kelas terdapat banyak topic sesuai disampaikan melalui sesi perbincangan khasnya bagi kursus bahasa. Di antara topik-topik yang sesuai dibincangkan topic isu semasa, program pelajar dan sebagainya. Kaedah ini melibatkan aktiviti perbualan di antara guru dan pelajar-pelajar dalam kelas atau satu jenis aktiviti pembelajaran secara bertukar-tukar fikiran atau idea serta berkongsi maklumat tentang sesuatu perkara. Para pelajar harus diberitahu cara-cara dan peraturan-peraturan perbincangan terlebih dahulu. Ini bertujuaan agar aktiviti perbincangan lancer, teratur dan tidak terpesong daripada tujuan. Pada akhir perbincangan, idea-idea haruslah dirumuskan. Rumusan ini kan digunakan untuk membuat ulasan perbincangan.
2. Proses pembelajaran melalui proses pemerhatian dan pemodelan Bandura (1986) mengenal pasti empat unsure utama dalam proses pembelajaran melalui pemerhatian atau pemodelan, iaitu pemerhatian (attention), mengingati (retention), re,produksi (reproduction), dan penangguhan (re inforcement) motivasi (motivion). Implikasi daripada kaedah ini keberkesanan pembelajaran dan pengajaran dapat dicapai melalui beberapa cara yang berikut: • Penyampaian harus cekap dan menarik • Demonstasi guru hendaklah jelas, menarik, mudah dan tepat • Hasilan guru atau contoh-contoh seperti ditunjukkan hendaklah mempunyai mutu yang tinggi
3. Pembelajaran, ingatan, dan lupaan Pembelajaran merupakan sesuatu proses psikologikal dalaman. Sama ada ia belaku tidak akan dapat diperhatikan atau diukur secara langsung. Apa yang kita ukur ialah ingatan selepas pembelajaran sahaja. Oleh itu, ingatan hanya boleh dianggap gambaran atau praktikal pembelajaran. Walaupun, ingatan boleh mewakili pembelajaran, kualiti ingatan dan lupaan ialah tiga proses yang saling berkaitan serta saling berpengaruhi antara satu sama lain. Berikut mengilustrasikan secara ringkas peringkat-peringkat perkaitan pembelajaran, ingatan dan lupaan. Rajah 1: peringkat-peringkat perkaitan pembelajaran, ingatan dan lupaan.
Berdasarkan huraian-huraian pengertian ingatan di atas maka bolehlah dirumuskan bahawa ingatan merupakan proses kebolehan manusia untuk menerima maklumat, memproses dan menyimpanya dalam otak, kemudian mengeluarkannya ketika perlu.
Berdasarkan daripada tiga kaedah penyampaian yang digunakan tadi, proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang dilaksanakan akan lebih terancang dan berkesan.
Apabila guru menggunakan kaedah ini untuk proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara tidak lansung akan meningkatkan kemahiran pelajar dalam pangajaran dan pembelajaran.
Dalam suasana pengajaran dan pembelajaran, kemahiran-kemahiran bermaksud seseorang itu terlatih dan mempunyai pengalaman yang tinggi serta mendalam. Dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran kebolehan menguasai kemahiran tertentu harus ditegaskan oleh guru, terutama kemahiran asas seperti menyelesaikan masalah, kemahiran berfikir secara kritis dan kreatif, kemahiran mendengar, bertutur, kemahiran membaca dan menulis dan sebagainya. Apabila pelajar menguasai kemahiran asas ini akan dapat membantu pelajar tersebut menguasai bidang-bidang ilmu yang lain dengan lebih mudah.

MBMMBI















Monday, 3 October 2011